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見るところ花にあらずと云ふことなし

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Simple Neurobiology of Sleep  

2014-07-28 15:41:45|  分类: Reading notes |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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I did this for a MOOC assignment.  It took me more effort than I had expected. 


Some basic knowledge about the brain:

{* Brain anatomy:
http://www.healthpages.org/anatomy-function/brain-anatomy/
Simple Neurobiology of Sleep - dreamtower - 見るところ花にあらずと云ふことなし

http://www.webmd.com/brain/picture-of-the-brain
Simple Neurobiology of Sleep - dreamtower - 見るところ花にあらずと云ふことなし
}  

{*The brainstem refers to the midbrain and portions of the hindbrain. Specifically, the brainstem comprises:

    • Midbrain (mesencephalon)
    • Medulla (myelencephalon)
    • Pons (metencephalon)
Simple Neurobiology of Sleep - dreamtower - 見るところ花にあらずと云ふことなし
Midbrain
-Controls posture and walking
-Handles reflexes of eye movements
Simple Neurobiology of Sleep - dreamtower - 見るところ花にあらずと云ふことなし
Pons (metencephalon)
-Full name: Pons Varolii. Originally means 'bridge'
-Bridges the cerebrum and the cerebellum through cerebellar peduncles
Simple Neurobiology of Sleep - dreamtower - 見るところ花にあらずと云ふことなし
Medulla (myelencephalon)
-Full name: Medulla Oblongata ("oblong marrow")
-Connects the spinal cord to pons }

{The AAS system and Sleep Mechanism by McCarley and Sinton,
http://www.scholarpedia.org/article/Neurobiology_of_sleep_and_wakefulness
Simple Neurobiology of Sleep - dreamtower - 見るところ花にあらずと云ふことなし
Figure : The principal activating systems that support wakefulness are displayed on this schematic of a sagittal section of a rodent brain. Excitatory influences are shown in red and inhibitory in green. See text for abbreviations.
 
Simple Neurobiology of Sleep - dreamtower - 見るところ花にあらずと云ふことなし
Figure : NREM sleep is marked by a reduced discharge rate of the activating systems, shown here in pink, as the inhibitory influence from cells in the VLPO region increases.}

Part 1: The parts of the nervous system that are involved 

Sleep is very important for rest, memory formation and growth and so on. But there are many people suffering from various sleep disorders. They just can’t fall asleep though the sleep pressure does build in the daytime. As an active inhibitory process, sleep could be the war result between two sides: the factors that push us to sleep, and the factors that keep us awake. The anterior part of hypothalamus stands by the first side, while the posterior part of hypothalamus takes the second (Mason, Sleep Mechanisms, 2014). The brain stem is also involved. In one way, it helps to inhibit other parts of the brain for sleep, and also secretes serotonin, which is very crucial for sleep (Hall, 2011). In the other way, the locus coeruleus (LC), the laterodorsal tegmentum/pedunculopontine (LDT/PPT) region and the dorsal raphe (DR) of the brainstem, as part of the ascending activating system (AAS), all contribute to wakefulness (McCarley, 2011). Numerous kinds of neurotransmitter are recruited by both sides. Excitatory transmitters (the wakefulness supporters) include adrenalin, norepinephrine, acetylcholine, glutamate, histamine and so on while the other side comes inhibitory transmitters like GABA, serotonin (Bush et al). They win the battle by activating different parts of the brain, like the prefrontal cortex, the pituitary gland and so on.

 

Part 2: Functions of the nervous system that are apparent and/or impaired in your example:

The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus served as the circadian timing system, our internal clock (Brainfacts.org). Stimulation of this region could promote sleep (Hall, 2011).

The preoptic hypothalamus is very important for short wave sleep. Median preoptic nucleus (MnPN) and ventrolateral preoptic area (VLPO) inhibit the monoaminergic systems and the hypocretin system which promote wake state during sleep (Szymusiak, 2008). Lesion in this area would cause insomnia.

And lesion in posterior hypothalamus, which is important for keeping awake, is connected with narcolepsy, a syndrome that patient suffer both from interrupted nocturnal night sleep and excessive daytime sleep (Mignot et al, 2002).

      Both the sleep and wakefulness need the brainstem. The upper midpons of the brainstem is required to cause sleep (Hall, 2011) while the LC, PPT and DR constitute a large part of the AAS. And it also controls basic living function like breathing and heart beating. Lesion of the brainstem could be lethal, could cause a coma, or could cause sleep apnea (McDermott et al, 2014).

Reference:

Szymusiak RMcGinty D. Hypothalamic regulation of sleep and arousal. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2008;1129:275-86. doi: 10.1196/annals.1417.027.

Brainfacts.org , The Sleep-Wakefulness Cycle, http://www.brainfacts.org/sensing-thinking-behaving/sleep/articles/2012/the-sleep-wakefulness-cycle/

Bradley Bush, Rebecca Bush, Bert Mathieson, The Role of Transmitters and Hormones in Sleep. http://www.nhnatural.com/images/Sleep-NHNHC.pdf

E. Mignot, S. Taheri, Seiji Nishino, Sleeping with the Hypothalamus, Nature Neuroscience Supplement, volume 5, November 2002, http://psychiatry.stanford.edu/narcolepsy/articles/natureneuro5.pdf

McDermott et al, Sleep apnea common among stroke-related brainstem injuries, American Stroke Association Meeting Report: Abstract: 52 (Room 20BC), Feb. 2014. 


 



 
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