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转:【读书笔记】罗素 - 《西方哲学史》02  

2011-09-14 13:06:17|  分类: Reading notes |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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Book One - ANCIENT PHILOSOPHY - [Part I. The Pre-Socratics]

[CHAPTER I] The Rise of Greek Civilization

№.1 - In all history, nothing is so surprising or so difficult to account for as the sudden rise of civilization in Greece.Much of what makes civilization had already existed for thousands of years in Egypt and in Mesopotamia, and had spread thence to neighbouring countries. But certain elements had been lacking until the Greeks supplied them. What they achieved in art and literature is familiar to everybody, but what they did in the purely intellectual realm is even more exceptional.



【短语笔记】account for - 说明(原因等);对 ... 负责;(在数量方面)占 ...

【举一反三】on account of - 因为


(1)The treasurer has to account for the money paid to him.(财务负责人必须说明交给他的钱是怎样用的。)

(2)On account of his more elevated position, the general had the enemy at vantage.(因为处于较高的位置,那位将军占敌人的上风。)

№.2 - Where a religion was bound up with the government of an empire, politicalmotives did much to transform its primitive features.



【短语笔记】be bound up with - 与 ... 密切相关, 和 ... 息息相关

【举一反三】bound的另两个相关短语用法:表示开往某地,仅有目的地时,用be bound for,后接目的地;表示从某地开往某地,出发地和目的地都有时,用be bound from...to...


(1)Her illness is bound up with the pressure of her study and work.(她的疾病与她紧张的学习和工作有密切关系。)

(2)The ship is bound from Qingdao to Shanghai.(这艘船是从青岛开往上海。)

№.3 - The Homeric gods were the gods of a conquering aristocracy, not the useful fertility gods of those who actually tilled the soil. As Gilbert Murray says: "The gods of most nations claim to have created the world. The Olympians make no such claim. The most they ever did was to conquer it. And when they have conquered their kingdoms, what do they do? Do they attend to the government? Do they promote agriculture? Do they practise trades and industries? Not a bit of it. Why should they do any honest work? They find it easier to live on the revenues and blast with thunderbolts the people who do not pay. They are conquering chieftains, royal buccaneers. They fight, and feast, and play, and make music; they drink deep, and roar with laughter at the lame smith who waits on them. They are never afraid, except of their own king. They never tell lies, except in love and war."



【短语笔记】till the soil - 松土,耕地

【举一反三】表达耕种的短语有很多,例如:cultivate land - 开垦贫瘠土地;plough the field/land - 耕地


(1)All this to rise with the roosters and till the soil. (这都是为了饲养公鸡,种田耕地。)

(2)Land being the cultivated manicured place that provides, whatever, the harvest, things like that while wilderness was some place that was barren, it does not produce fruit. (被开垦培育过的土地为人们提供丰收的果实,有些荒野地却是贫瘠的,不会产生果实。)

(3)After the seventh year, i.e. the sabbatical year, farmers can plough field again. (第七年过后,也就是安息年,农民可以继续耕地。)

№.4 - The civilized man is distinguished from the savage mainly by prudence, or, to use a slightly wider term, forethought. He is willing to endure present pains for the sake of future pleasures, even if the future pleasures are rather distant.



【短语笔记】for the sake of - 为了;为了 ... 的利益

【举一反三】近义短语: for the purpose of - 为了 ... 目的;为了 ... 而做某事


(1)We kept silent for the sake of maintaining peaceful relations with Russia.(为了维持和俄罗斯的和平关系,我们一直在保持沉默。 )

(2)For the purpose of being more handsome on his wedding day, he had woolen wedding clothes made to order. (为了婚礼那天显得帅气些,他特意定做了一身呢料礼服。 )

№.5 - Civilization checks impulse not only through forethought, which is a self-administered check, but also through law, custom, and religion. This check it inherits from barbarism, but it makes it less instinctive and more systematic.



【短语笔记】forethought - 深谋远虑;先见;考虑将来

【例】The Industrial Revolution has unfolded, for the most part, without design or forethought.( 工业革命开展已久,但多半时候并未经过缜密思考,也没有前瞻的视野。)

本文由沪友 落落 独家提供,原文译文摘自《西方哲学史》[商务印书馆,1977-6],转载请注明出处。

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