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转:用水就能变成半导体  

2010-11-01 14:10:49|  分类: IC design |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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“用水就能变成半导体”,美国伦斯勒理工学院成功在石墨烯上生成带隙

2010/10/29 00:00
 
  美国纽约的伦斯勒理工学院(Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute)宣布,该校研究人员成功地使用水在石墨烯上形成了带隙(英文发布资料)。论文已刊登在学术杂志《small》上。

  伦斯勒理工学院教授Nikhil Koratkar的研究团队首先在二氧化硅底板上制作出石墨烯薄膜。然后,将薄膜和底板一起放入保持一定湿度的容器中。石墨烯吸收了空气中的水分后,在石墨烯上生成带隙。而且,可通过调节温度、在0~0.2eV的范围内自由设定带隙值。这种变化是可逆的,只要将底板放入真空中,就可使刚刚生成的带隙值变为0。

  石墨烯本身并没有带隙,只具有金属一样的特性。因此用于晶体管的通道层时,不能完全确保开关在连接和断开时的电流值比。

如何破坏对称性

  Koratka表示,此次尝试的关键是“破坏石墨烯的对称性”(Koratka)。Koratka认为,石墨烯没有带隙,是由于石墨烯薄膜具有无法区分表里两面的高对称性,只要用某种办法破坏该对称性,就能在其上生成带隙。

  此次使用的方法是使水分子H2O只吸着于石墨烯薄膜表面,而不接触与二氧化硅底板相接的一面,从而破坏了薄膜的对称性。

  在通过破坏对称性生成带隙的方法方面,将石墨烯加工成细带状、以及利用2层或3层石墨烯等方法也都被开发了出来。Koratkar表示,“此次的方法具有低成本、无毒性以及带隙调节非常简单”的优点。(记者:野泽 哲生)
 
 
 
Water Could Hold Answer to Graphene Nanoelectronics

Researchers at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Use Water to Open, Tune Graphene’s Band Gap

Researchers at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute developed a new method for using water to tune the band gap of the nanomaterial graphene, opening the door to new graphene-based transistors and nanoelectronics. In this optical micrograph image, a graphene film on a silicon dioxide substrate is being electrically tested using a four-point probe.

Researchers at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute developed a new method for using water to tune the band gap of the nanomaterial graphene, opening the door to new graphene-based transistors and nanoelectronics.

By exposing a graphene film to humidity, Rensselaer Professor Nikhil Koratkar and his research team were able to create a band gap in graphene — a critical prerequisite to creating graphene transistors. At the heart of modern electronics, transistors are devices that can be switched “on” or “off” to alter an electrical signal. Computer microprocessors are comprised of millions of transistors made from the semiconducting material silicon, for which the industry is actively seeking a successor.

Graphene, an atom-thick sheet of carbon atoms arranged like a nanoscale chain-link fence, has no band gap. Koratkar’s team demonstrated how to open a band gap in graphene based on the amount of water they adsorbed to one side of the material, precisely tuning the band gap to any value from 0 to 0.2 electron volts. This effect was fully reversible and the band gap reduced back to zero under vacuum. The technique does not involve any complicated engineering or modification of the graphene, but requires an enclosure where humidity can be precisely controlled.

“Graphene is prized for its unique and attractive mechanical properties. But if you were to build a transistor using graphene, it simply wouldn’t work as graphene acts like a semi-metal and has zero band gap,” said Koratkar, a professor in the Department of Mechanical, Aerospace, and Nuclear Engineering at Rensselaer. “In this study, we demonstrated a relatively easy method for giving graphene a band gap. This could open the door to using graphene for a new generation of transistors, diodes, nanoelectronics, nanophotonics, and other applications.”

Results of the study were detailed in the paper “Tunable Band gap in Graphene by the Controlled Adsorbtion of Water Molecules,” published this week by the journal Small. See the full paper at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.201001384

In its natural state, graphene has a peculiar structure but no band gap. It behaves as a metal and is known as a good conductor. This is compared to rubber or most plastics, which are insulators and do not conduct electricity. Insulators have a large band gap — an energy gap between the valence and conduction bands — which prevents electrons from conducting freely in the material.  

Between the two are semiconductors, which can function as both a conductor and an insulator. Semiconductors have a narrow band gap, and application of an electric field can provoke electrons to jump across the gap. The ability to quickly switch between the two states — “on” and “off” — is why semiconductors are so valuable in microelectronics.

“At the heart of any semiconductor device is a material with a band gap,” Koratkar said. “If you look at the chips and microprocessors in today’s cell phones, mobile devices, and computers, each contains a multitude of transistors made from semiconductors with band gaps. Graphene is a zero band gap material, which limits its utility. So it is critical to develop methods to induce a band gap in graphene to make it a relevant semiconducting material.”

The symmetry of graphene’s lattice structure has been identified as a reason for the material’s lack of band gap. Koratkar explored the idea of breaking this symmetry by binding molecules to only one side of the graphene. To do this, he fabricated graphene on a surface of silicon and silicon dioxide, and then exposed the graphene to an environmental chamber with controlled humidity. In the chamber, water molecules adsorbed to the exposed side of the graphene, but not on the side facing the silicon dioxide. With the symmetry broken, the band gap of graphene did, indeed, open up, Koratkar said. Also contributing to the effect is the moisture interacting with defects in the silicon dioxide substrate.

“Others have shown how to create a band gap in graphene by adsorbing different gasses to its surface, but this is the first time it has been done with water,” he said. “The advantage of water adsorption, compared to gasses, is that it is inexpensive, nontoxic, and much easier to control in a chip application. For example, with advances in micro-packaging technologies it is relatively straightforward to construct a small enclosure around certain parts or the entirety of a computer chip in which it would be quite easy to control the level of humidity.”

Based on the humidity level in the enclosure, chip makers could reversibly tune the band gap of graphene to any value from 0 to 0.2 electron volts, Korarkar said.

Along with Koratkar, authors on the paper are Theodorian Borca-Tasciuc, associate professor in the Department of Mechanical, Aerospace, and Nuclear Engineering at Rensselaer; Rensselaer mechanical engineering graduate student Fazel Yavari, who was first author on the paper; Rensselaer Focus Center New York Postdoctoral Research Associate Churamani Gaire; and undergraduate student Christo Kritzinger. Co-authors from Rice University are Professor Pulickel M. Ajayan; Postdoctoral Research Fellow Li Song; and graduate student Hemtej Gulapalli.

This study was supported by the Advanced Energy Consortium (AEC), National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Nanoelectronics Research Initiative, and the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES).


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